VARROA: the varroa (scientific name Varroa jacobsoni Oudemans) is a mite coming from south-east Asia. At the beginning of 80 years it was reported in Italy. The trade of the swarms and of bee queens, the natural swarming, the carriage and plunder, joined to a high adaptability, have get easier the diffusion along all the national territory.
The varroa has ovoid shape, dark red color, slightly bigger than 1 mm; it has 8 paws, and a pungent and sucking apparatus. His male is even smaller, practically invisible to the beekeeper eyes; it’s forced to pair and live only inside the cells of the honeycombs.
The varroa damages both the brood and the adult bee. Particularly, it shows his destructive force inside the brood cells: sucks the sap of the larvae, causing the birth of deformed bees, the general weakening of the swarm, the diffusion of virus and bacteria, that leading to the total destruction of the swarm within a few years. The varroa hides itself among the abdominal segments of the bee and inside the cells of the honeycombs with brood, immediately before they are fill in with operculum. This attitude of the mite makes problematic any disinfestation intervention by the beekeeper. Another attitude of the varroa is the preference to breed inside cells with drone larvae.
The varroa breeds itself only inside the brood cells with operculum, the female gets inside it just few hours before that the cells are closed.
THE AMERICAN PLAGUE / PUTREFACTION OF THE BROOD
THE EUROPEAN PLAGUE / ACID BROOD
NOPHSEMIASYS : – is an illness of the adult bees, caused by unicellular fungus.
NOPHSEMIASYS APIS : is responsible for the classic form gastroenteric of the disease.
NOPHSEMIASYS CERANAE : is a pathogen, it causes form of the disease distinguished of a slow depopulation, until the death.
MOTH OF THE WAX : the “galleria mellonella”, better known as moth of the wax, can be considered the enemy number 1 of the honeycombs. Diffused and present everywhere there are hives.
His larvae feeds of honeycombs, they destruct them and contribute to the transmissions of infective diseases as the American plague. For this reason, is very important, when you reduce the number of honeycombs inside the hive or when you stock the supers at the end of the fruitful season, to predispose in a fresh and ventilated place and equip with products suitable to counteract the destructive action of the larvae.